NUTRITION AND OBESITY TREATMENTS
Obesity is considered a chronic disease that has increased its prevalence in an epidemic fashion over the past four decades.
Indeed, worldwide up to half a billion adults are considered obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), translating into nearly 42.8% of middle-aged adults.
Obesity is a multifactorial disease that increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and even cancer. Actually, it is among the leading causes of death worldwide.
Also, obese patients may present with:
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease
- High blood pressure
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Osteoarthritis and general joint pain
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Closely related, metabolic syndrome includes a variety of metabolic risk factors secondary to abdominal obesity.
It can be defined by abdominal obesity and the presence of at least 2 of the following factors: increased fasting plasma glucose, increased triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol), and hypertension.
Metabolic syndrome usually comes before the onset of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases! So, you should see it as a warning sign to take action immediately.
Worldwide, approximately 25% of the adult population has metabolic syndrome, and obesity-related diseases cause nearly 2.8 million deaths annually.
Hence, effective strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by obesity are of the utmost importance.
Let’s Talk About Obesity
Overweight and obesity occur when abnormal or excess fat accumulation represents a risk to health.
Body fat can be estimated using the body mass index (BMI) calculated by dividing the body weight in kilograms by height in meters squared, expressed in kg/m2.
However, BMI is not a percentage of body fat. It is only part of the obesity diagnosis.
Using this parameter, we can classify obesity in:
- Ideal Weight: BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2
- Overweight: BMI 25-29,9 kg/m2
- Mild Obesity (type I): BMI 30-34,9 kg/m2
- Moderate Obesity (type II): BMI 35-39,9 kg/m2
- Severe Obesity (type III): BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2
Obesity is the result of a prolonged imbalance between calories intake and expenditure. But, this is not as simple as eating more calories than the ones you burn!
Indeed, obesity is a complex disease resulting from a “teamwork” between genetic predisposition, physiological, nutritional, environmental factors, and social standards.
And, because of obesity’s multifactorial quality, there are many different strategies available toward its prevention and treatment.
Restrictive Vs. Malabsorptive
Bariatric surgery includes procedures such as gastric sleeve, gastric bypass surgery, and adjustable gastric band, each with its indications and benefits.
These procedures can make you lose weight by modifying food ingestion. They can limit the absorption of nutrients (malabsorptive) or reduce your stomach capacity (restrictive).
The Malabsorptive Method
In this case, a small stomach pouch is created and connected to the intestines.
This so-called “rerouting of food transit” limits your calorie intake. Also, there is a modification of the gut hormones that control appetite, so you will feel satiated after eating less food.
This method is used with the conventional gastric bypass and the mini bypass.
The Restrictive Method
In the gastric band, a band is placed near the top of the stomach creating a small pouch. Therefore, the shape and capacity of the stomach are greatly reduced.
On the other hand, with the sleeve gastrectomy, a portion of the stomach is surgically removed, making it smaller and giving it the shape of a banana.
With this method, the reduced capacity leads to early satiation by slowing the food passage from the stomach to the intestines. Hence, you will feel full in a shorter time, causing a change in your food intake!
However, this classification does not appropriately reflect the current level of knowledge about the metabolic effects of these procedures. So, nowadays, bariatric surgical interventions are better referred to as metabolic operations.
For a few years now, the main focus when treating obesity has been gradually shifting from weight loss outcomes to beneficial long-term metabolic effects.
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- Greenwald A. (2006). Current nutritional treatments of obesity. Advances in psychosomatic medicine, 27, 24–41. https://doi.org/10.1159/000090961
- Shankar, P., Boylan, M., & Sriram, K. (2010). Micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 26(11-12), 1031–1037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2009.12.003
4 reasons why you can trust in Servidigest Medical-Surgical Center (Barcelona, Spain):
SPECIALISTS IN NUTRITION AND OBESITY TREATMENTS AT SERVIDIGEST BARCELONA CLINIC (SPAIN):
Excellence awards received by Servidigest Barcelona (Spain)
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